Environmental Pollution:- In the natural environment, various unwanted substances are mixed day by day. These substances change the natural environment. As a result, organisms living in air, water and soil are facing different kinds of problems. Thus, the mixing of impurities into the natural environment that causes adverse change in the human health and environment is called pollution. Pollution is mainly caused due to the human activities. Sometimes it is also caused due to natural activities such as volcano, flood, landslide, etc.
Nowadays, pollution has become a global problem. So, every individual, society and nation should be concerned about the effects and controlling measure of the pollution. The earth is common home for all the organisms. Each individuals regardless of their place of the origin should take interest in the cause, effects and controlling measure of the pollution.
The act of controlling, minimizing and preventing the cause of the environmental pollution is known as pollution management. Management of the pollution should not be the concern of the single individual or country but the whole world. In this article we will discuss the sources, effects and mitigating measure of air pollution.
Air contains various gases and particles. Some of these gases and particles are useful to us while some are extremely toxic. The elements of the atmospheric air are nitrogen(78%), oxygen(21%) and small amount of the carbon dioxide, argon, methane, water vapour etc. but along with these components , various unwanted material are also mixed in air. As a result air becomes polluted.
The mixing of unwanted foreign particles in air that decreases the quality of the breathing air is known as air pollution. Air pollution is caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Volcanic eruption, earthquake, etc. are natural causes of air pollution while emission from industries, mining, factories, vehicles, etc. are caused by human activities. The sources that pollute air directly or indirectly are called air pollutants.
Types of air pollutants:
There are mainly two types of air pollutants they are:
- Primary air pollutants
- Secondary air pollutants
The difference between primary and secondary air pollutants are as follows:
|S.N.||Primary air pollutants||S.N.||Secondary air pollutants|
|1.||Primary air pollutants are directly released in the atmosphere.||1.||Secondary air pollutants are formed by the interaction of primary air pollutants with each other or with other substances.|
|2.||They are less toxic.||2.||They are more toxic.|
|3.||They are formed as a result of the chemical reaction in the industries or vehicles.||3.||They are formed as a result of chemical reactions in the atmosphere.|
Types of sources of air pollution:
- Natural sources
- Artificial sources
Effects of Air Pollution:
- Adverse effects on the human health
- Adverse effects on plant growth
- Decrease in the solar radiation
- Reduction in the visibility
- Acid rain: some pollutants like Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, chlorine etc. undergo certain chemical changes and mix with rain droplets in the upper atmosphere. Then they fall as a rain. This is called acid rain. Acid rain affects the fertility of the soil, causes skin irritation in humans, kills aquatic life and deteriorate buildings and monuments.
- Growth of unwanted algae and grasses
- Formation of ground level ozone
- Climate change
- Depletion of ozone layer
- Deterioration of historical monument
Measures to control air pollution:
- Industries should be set up in the isolated area far from the city places.
- Population growth should be controlled.
- We should prefer public transportation.
- Reduction and management of the nuclear wastes should be done.
- Preference should be given to the clean energy sources as they do not produce any kind of hazardous by products.
- Afforestation should be promoted.
- Promotion and investment should be increased on alternative sources of energy like wind energy, hydropower, tidal energy and solar energy.
- Reducing banning and controlling the production of certain air pollutants like CO, CFC, SO2 NO2 etc. should be done.
- We should increase public awareness about the harmful effects of pollution and ways to control it.